Cross-linking occurs through a process known as glycation. In this process, a covalent bond is established between the amino acids in the collagen and elastin present in the dermis. These amino acids are linked by glucose and fructose, leading to the production and accumulation of AGEs, which allow structural changes in the skin to occur and result in increased stiffness and reduced elasticity.
- Research indicates that once established, the body is unable to repair these cross-links.
- Glycation is well underway by early adulthood, with a rate that varies depending on diet.
- The occurrence of this cross-linking can be significantly reduced through a diet, lifestyle and supplementation regimen focused on their prevention.
- Research shows that the ingredients contained in OProCyn, such as Grape seed Extract, are agents which provide natural prevention of this cross-linking, thus stabilizing collagen matrices.
Photo-aging is known to occur in skin with exposure to sunlight, specifically ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced oxidative stress has been implicated in various skin diseases.
- Over-exposure may lead to oxidative stress and oxidative damage which may result in skin disorders, immunosuppression, premature aging of the skin and development of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers.
- Research shows that grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have a photo-protective effect on UV-induced oxidative stress and UV-induced activation of gene activity and cellular signaling pathways.
- GSPs have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models.
- GSPs have been shown to prevent skin cancer through epigenetic modulation by inhibiting histone deacetylase activity and reactivating tumor suppressor genes in skin cancer cells.
- GSPs also inhibited UVB-induced depletion of antioxidant defense components, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione.
Overall, the OPCs contained in OProCyn are shown to induce the Nrf2 defense pathway, which acts as a “master regulator” of the cellular antioxidant response. Research has demonstrated that the OPC-activated Nrf2 pathway confers protection against ultraviolet-induced skin inflammation.
Therefore, OPCs are expected to be potent suppressors of expression or activity of genes in the melanogenic, inflammatory, and arachidonic acid-synthesizing categories downstream of Nrf2, and are expected to have desirable effects on:
- wound healing and photoaging because they promote tissue elasticity
- helping to heal microinjuries
- reducing bruising and swelling by strengthening blood vessels
- preventing post inflammatory skin pigmentation
- restoring dermal collagen
- improving the peripheral circulation
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Cetin EO1, Yesil-Celiktas O, Cavusoglu T, Demirel-Sezer E, Akdemir O, Uyanikgil Y. Incision wound healing activity of pine bark extract containing topical formulations: a study with histopathological and biochemical analyses in albino rats. Pharmazie. 2013 Jan;68(1):75-80.